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04
Sep
2021

TUI opts not to pay a dividend after its revenues slump amid tough conditions

first_img TUI Group, the parent of Tui Travel, reported a 45 per cent fall in profits for the year to September despite a 14 per cent increase in operating earnings from tourism.The company reported a group profit of €114m (£135m) down from €206m a year ago and chief executive Michael Frenzel said it would not pay a dividend in 2010 because of tough markets.However, its underlying profit from operations rose by a quarter year-on-year to €589m.TUI derives almost all its earnings from travel – about one-third of them from the UK – after moving into the sector in the 1990s from heavy industry and shipping.The German group reported total revenue of €16.4bn, of which Tui Travel contributed €15.7bn and separate companies Tui Hotels & Resorts and Tui Cruises added €559m.TUI reported earnings from Tui Travel up almost 11 per cent year-on-year, in line with the results of the London-based tourism company stated earlier this month. The group is reported to be preparing to sell its stake in shipping company Hapag-Lloyd after rescuing the company from failure during the downturn of 2009. Hapag-Lloyd is all that remains of TUI’s former heavy-industry empire. The group was in the process of completing its divestment in 2008 when the world financial crisis struck. Tuesday 14 December 2010 8:13 pm TUI opts not to pay a dividend after its revenues slump amid tough conditions KCS-content Show Comments ▼ Share whatsapp More From Our Partners Sidney Crosby, Alex Ovechkin are graying and frayingnypost.comRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.comMark Eaton, former NBA All-Star, dead at 64nypost.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.orgSupermodel Anne Vyalitsyna claims income drop, pushes for child supportnypost.comNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comBrave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.orgPolice Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.orgMatt Gaetz swindled by ‘malicious actors’ in $155K boat sale boondogglenypost.comKiller drone ‘hunted down a human target’ without being told tonypost.comFeds seized 18 devices from Rudy Giuliani and his employees in April raidnypost.comBiden received funds from top Russia lobbyist before Nord Stream 2 giveawaynypost.com980-foot skyscraper sways in China, prompting panic and evacuationsnypost.comI blew off Adam Sandler 22 years ago — and it’s my biggest regretnypost.comFlorida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comInside Ashton Kutcher and Mila Kunis’ not-so-average farmhouse estatenypost.comUK teen died on school trip after teachers allegedly refused her pleasnypost.com whatsapp Tags: NULLlast_img read more

24
Aug
2021

GAN appoints Scientific Games’ Shore to lead investor relations

first_imgAddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter Read the full story on iGB North America. 8th April 2021 | By Robert Fletcher Topics: People People moves GAN appoints Scientific Games’ Shore to lead investor relations Shore will lead GAN’s investor relations and capital markets efforts, including strategic engagement with the investor community and analysts around the gaming technology provider’s positioning in the digital gaming space. Shore joins GAN from Scientific Games, where he had served as senior director of investor relations and corporate finance, a role in which he was involved with the initial public offering of the SciPlay subsidiary. “There is clear excitement and momentum in digital gaming, and I am eager to further contribute to GAN’s leadership position and operational excellence in this segment,” Shore said.center_img GAN has appointed former Scientific Games director Robert Shore to the newly created role of vice president of investor relations and capital markets. People moves Tags: GAN Robert Shore Prior to this, Shore spent more than a decade in equity research at Wells Fargo, Union Gaming and Susquehanna International Group, where he covered gaming technology companies and operators Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter Email Addresslast_img read more

20
Jun
2021

Toronto Anglicans join in ‘prayer and lament’ after van attack…

first_img Anglican Communion Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Rector Albany, NY Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Rector Knoxville, TN Submit a Job Listing Tags Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Submit a Press Release Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Posted Apr 25, 2018 This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group Rector Shreveport, LA Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Curate Diocese of Nebraska Toronto Anglicans join in ‘prayer and lament’ after van attack kills 10 Rector Tampa, FL Rector Bath, NC Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Rector Washington, DC Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Submit an Event Listing Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Director of Music Morristown, NJ In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Youth Minister Lorton, VA AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Press Release Service Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Rector Pittsburgh, PA Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Rector Smithfield, NC Associate Rector Columbus, GA Rector Hopkinsville, KY Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET [Anglican Communion News Service] “Tragedy has struck our city today.” These were the words of Archbishop Colin Johnson of the dioceses of Toronto and Moosonee and metropolitan of the Ecclesiastical Province of Ontario, in a statement releasedApril 23) Around 1:30 p.m. that day, in the North York area of Toronto, a white rental van drove onto the sidewalk of busy Yonge Street and accelerated.Read the entire article here. Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Rector Belleville, IL Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector Collierville, TN Featured Jobs & Calls Rector Martinsville, VA Featured Events Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT last_img read more

19
Jun
2021

Apopka Burglary Report

first_img LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Apopka Burglary Report: Week Ending – 4/7/2018The Apopka Burglary Report for the week ending April 7th shows eight burglaries reported in the City of Apopka.Four burglaries were reported at residences in the 1900 BLOCK of SHEELER OAKS DR, the 1000 BLOCK of INTERLAKEN WAY, the 800 BLOCK of LA GRAN VIA LN, and the 900 BLOCK of E LISA LN.Three burglaries were reported at businesses in the 200 BLOCK of West Main Street, 200 BLOCK of S LAKE AVE, and the 100 BLOCK OF E 5TH ST.One vehicle burglary was reported in the 1700 BLOCK of WEST MARSHALL LAKE DR.Chief Michael McKinley of the Apopka Police Department tells us that many vehicle burglaries could have been prevented if everyone remembers to do just two things:Remove all valuables from your vehicleLock your car doorsThe breakdown of the burglaries reported to the Apopka Police Department last week:3 – Business4 – Residential1 – Vehicle You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Florida gas prices jump 12 cents; most expensive since 2014 Gov. DeSantis says new moment-of-silence law in public schools protects religious freedom UF/IFAS in Apopka will temporarily house District staff; saves almost $400,000 TAGSApopka Burglary ReportApopka Police DepartmentBusiness Burglary ReportResidential Burglary ReportVehicle Burglary Report Previous articleNolan wins Seat #2 runoff over VelazquezNext articleJoin The Apopka Voice team: Sales Manager needed Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Please enter your name here Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Please enter your comment!last_img read more

16
Jun
2021

‘Band Aid’ style event for Tsunami appeal planned for Cardiff

first_img Howard Lake | 4 January 2005 | News About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. ‘Band Aid’ style event for Tsunami appeal planned for Cardiff AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis A major fundraising concert is being planned for 22 January 2005 to be held at Cardiff’s 70,000-seat Millennium Stadium to raise funds for the Asian Tsunami earthquake disaster appeal.The event is already being dubbed “Live Aid II” by some newspapers, such is its planned scale. U2 and Robbie Williams are both reported as likely participants.First Minister Rhodri Morgan commended the suggested event, after confirming that the National Assembly of Wales did not have the legal powers to make a donation itself to the emergency appeals. Advertisement  20 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Tagged with: Events Recruitment / peoplelast_img read more

16
Jun
2021

DTI warns small businesses of ‘charity publishing’ scams

first_img AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) investigators have published guidelines to educate businesses about cold-calling ‘publishing’ scams that allegedly claim to raise funds for charity.The scam is far from new but it is still attempted so the DTI is reminding businesses of the problem.The fake publishers call businesses around the UK asking for donations or to place adverts in charity booklets, wall charts, crime prevention yearbooks, emergency personnel magazines, children’s hospital ‘activity’ books, drug awareness or “youth action” books. Any money given does not end up with a charity. Advertisement Howard Lake | 27 January 2006 | News About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Some of the scams involve aggressive debt collection methods, with the worst examples including smearing victims’ names as paedophiles on the Internet, kidnap threats and physical intimidation, according to the DTI.DTI investigators have successfully wound up companies involved such as Cavendish Black and McAllister Stone, but others are still active.Roy and Amanda Harris, who run a family business in Hereford, have received charity publishing scam calls since 2004. “We were at our wits end. On one day alone we received 18 calls – these companies will not take no for an answer,” said Mr and Mrs Harris.Scam artists will often try and catch businesses unawares in a telephone call and get business staff to agree with them, sometimes unwittingly signing you up to a campaign. A standard question is: “do you agree that children need better drugs education?”If a suspicious call is received, the DTI advises people to contact their local Trading Standards department, Citizen’s Advice Bureau or Police station for advice.Gerry Sutcliffe, Fair Markets Minister, said: “The actions of these people are truly reprehensible. Our investigators won’t hesitate to shut them down.“Our advice to all businesses is: please don’t hesitate to support charities but do think twice before parting with money without checking credentials first.”Andrew Hind, Chief Executive of the Charity Commission, added: “It’s easy to check if a charity’s genuine or not – check our online register of charities at www.charity-commission.co.uk.”  15 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis DTI warns small businesses of ‘charity publishing’ scamslast_img read more

12
Jun
2021

Radio reporter seriously injured in shooting attack

first_img to go further Mass international solidarity campaign launched in support of Maria Ressa Help by sharing this information News RSF_en Organisation June 1, 2021 Find out more PhilippinesAsia – Pacific Follow the news on Philippines Receive email alerts Miguel Belen, a reporter for radio dwEB in Nabua (in the eastern province of Camarines Sur), was seriously wounded in a shooting as he was returning to his home in Iriga on the evening of 9 July. At least four shots were fired at him by two men on a motorcycle. Hospitalised and in a serious condition, he has been placed under police protection.“This latest case of post-electoral violence against a journalist highlights the failure of the authorities to guarantee the safety of media personnel and the urgent need for the new president, Noynoy Aquino, to effectively combat the prevailing impunity for those who attack and kill journalists,” Reporters Without Borders said.“The justice secretary’s recently announced plan for a new body to reinforce efforts to combat violence against journalists is encouraging, but the results, and the results alone, will determine whether it is an appropriate response,” the press freedom organisation added.Aged 48, Belen participated in the election campaign of a local politician who won a seat in the House of Representatives in the recent elections. The police said that Belen was threatened by rivals during the campaign and that they were therefore looking at the possibility that the shooting was politically motivated.Belen is the fourth journalist to be the target of a serious attack in the past month. The three other victims were all shot dead: Desidario Camangyan of radio Sunshine FM on 14 June, Joselito Agustin of DZJC Aksyon Radyo on 15 June and Nestor Bedolido of Kastigador on 19 June.Justice secretary Leila de Lima told National Press Club representatives on 10 July that orders have been given to create a “super body” to address attacks on journalists. It is not the first time the authorities have announced such an initiative. A special unit called Task Force 211 was created in 2007 with the aim of preventing and solving cases of political violence.center_img News Philippines: RSF and the #HoldTheLine Coalition welcome reprieve for Maria Ressa, demand all other charges and cases be dropped May 3, 2021 Find out more News PhilippinesAsia – Pacific July 11, 2010 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Radio reporter seriously injured in shooting attack News Filipina journalist still held although court dismissed case eleven days ago February 16, 2021 Find out morelast_img read more

04
Jun
2021

Junior Cycle coding pilot programme extended

first_imgLimerick social entrepreneurs honoured for their work in response to covid-19 TechPost | Episode 9 | Pay with Google, WAZE – the new Google Maps? and Speak don’t Type! Previous articleLimerick’s distressed borrowers should not lose their homesNext article2 arrested in relation to burglary at a Grove Island apartment Staff Reporterhttp://www.limerickpost.ie NewsEducationJunior Cycle coding pilot programme extendedBy Staff Reporter – March 15, 2019 834 TAGSbriefeducationLimerick City and CountyNewsTechnology Email O’Connells Butchers bringing a new element to customer service Facebook Limerick on Covid watch list RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHORcenter_img Print Twitter Coffee photo created by peoplecreations – www.freepik.comA PILOT programme to help schools introduce coding at Junior Cycle is to be extended to a second phase from September. Four Limerick secondary schools, Coláiste Chiarain, Gaelcholáiste Luimnigh, St Munchin’s College and Thomond Community College, were among 50 selected nationally in 2017 to pioneerJunior Cycle Coding in Action, an initiative spearheaded by the Department of Education, Junior Cycle for Teachers support service; Lero – the Irish Software Research Centre; Science Foundation Ireland and Intel Ireland. A review of the initiative showed the positive impact on the almost all post-primary schools involved in the first phase and called for the programme to be extended to a new group of 50 schools in a second phase. See www.jct.ie for more. Housing 37 Compulsory Purchase Orders issued as council takes action on derelict sites WhatsApp Advertisement Linkedin Shannon Airport braced for a devastating blowlast_img read more

27
May
2021

House damaged as gorse fire hits Ranafast

first_img Fire crews from Dungloe are this (Wednesday) evening attending a gorse fire near Ranafast that has caused an oil tank to explode.The fire in an area of Ranafast called Loch na nDeoran has burned a large area of bog land and trees. Several houses are in close proximity to the fire.An oil tank at a nearby house caught fire and exploded causing some damage to the soffit on the gable end of the house.Fire crews are using foam to dampen down the area of the oil explosion. The gorse has been extinguished. Twitter WhatsApp Further drop in people receiving PUP in Donegal Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry Google+ Pinterest 75 positive cases of Covid confirmed in North House damaged as gorse fire hits Ranafast Facebook Twitter Gardai continue to investigate Kilmacrennan firecenter_img Previous articleDonegal TUI says decision to ballot for industrial action was not taken lightlyNext article36 job losses in Strabane as local retailer closes its doors News Highland WhatsApp Pinterest RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR By News Highland – April 3, 2013 Main Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday May 25th Facebook 365 additional cases of Covid-19 in Republic News Google+last_img read more

26
May
2021

The Law On Phone Tapping In India

first_imgKnow the LawThe Law On Phone Tapping In India Afreen Alam3 Oct 2020 9:15 PMShare This – xCommunication surveillance has been widely accepted as a necessary evil that every civilized society should allow for the security of the state as well for prevention and investigation of crimes. However, state sponsored surveillance should be in balance with individual rights and personal liberties of the citizens. While many developed nations have put safeguards in place to ensure…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginCommunication surveillance has been widely accepted as a necessary evil that every civilized society should allow for the security of the state as well for prevention and investigation of crimes. However, state sponsored surveillance should be in balance with individual rights and personal liberties of the citizens. While many developed nations have put safeguards in place to ensure that surveillance activities aren’t arbitrary, invasive, and don’t infringe upon the people’s privacy, India is yet to catch up.Phone tapping, also known as wire-tapping or line bugging, is the monitoring of the phone or Internet-based conversations by a third party, often by covert means. Phone tapping is a critical invasion of an individual’s privacy and is an assortment of technological eavesdropping as exchanges on the telephone are often of a private and classified character. Eavesdropping originated in the US after the invention of the tape recorder. During the prohibition era, a bootlegger by the name of Roy Olmstead was convicted on the basis of evidence gathered by tapping a phone in his house. He challenged his conviction arguing that the phone-tapping violated his fundamental rights. However, the court refused to entertain his argument. Much later, In the case “Katz v. United States”, the Supreme Court of the United States redefined what constitutes “searches” and “seizures” with regard to the protections of the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and ruled that wiretapping requires a warrant. Article 21 of the Indian Constitution states, “Protection of life and personal liberty. No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.” Privacy is also enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) to which India is a party. Article 17 of the ICCPR states, “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honor and reputation.” The expression “personal liberty” in Article 21 of the Indian Constitution further includes within its ambit the right to privacy. In India, phone tapping is regulated under the Indian Telegraph Act 1885. The Act itself is a bygone piece of legislation and leaves much to be desired in terms of safeguarding privacy of citizens. Section 5 (2) of the Indian Telegraph Act 1885 states “On the occurrence of any public emergency, or in the interest of the public safety, the Central Government or a State Government or any officer specially authorized in this behalf by the Central Government or a State Government may, if satisfied that it is necessary or expedient so to do in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States or public order or for preventing incitement to the commission of an offence, for reasons to be recorded in writing, by order, direct that any message or class of messages to or from any person or class of persons, or relating to any particular subject, brought for transmission by or transmitted or received by any telegraph, shall not be transmitted, or shall be intercepted or detained, or shall be disclosed to the Government making the order or an officer thereof mentioned in the order: Provided that press messages intended to be published in India of correspondents accredited to the Central Government or a State Government shall not be intercepted or detained, unless their transmission has been prohibited under this subsection.” In R M Malkani vs. State of Maharashtra,[1] the Supreme Court opined that a witness is permitted to record a conversation with the accused and such recording would be admissible as evidence. It further opined that such recordings, as long as they are collected in the process of investigation, and the accused does not speak directly to the investigating officer, would not be within the vice of Section 162 of the Criminal Procedure Code. The Supreme Court in the landmark case of People’s Union of Civil Liberties (PUCL) vs Union of India (UOI)[2] (commonly known as the wiretap case), observed that “The right to privacy-by itself-has not been identified under the Constitution. As a concept it may be too broad and moralistic to define it judicially. Whether right to privacy can be claimed or has been infringed in a given case would depend on the facts of the said case. But the right to hold a telephone conversation in the privacy of one’s home or office without interference can certainly be claimed as “right to privacy”. Conversations on the telephone are often of an intimate and confidential character. Telephone-conversation is a part of modern man’s life. It is considered so important that more and more people are carrying mobile telephone instruments in their pockets. Telephone conversation is an important facet of a man’s private life. Right to privacy would certainly include telephone-conversation in the privacy of one’s home or office. Telephone-tapping would, thus, infract Article 21 of the Constitution of India unless it is permitted under the procedure established by law.” It further observed that, “Right to freedom of speech and expression is guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution. This freedom means the right to express one’s convictions and opinions freely by word of mouth, writing, printing, picture, or in any other manner. When a person is talking on the telephone, he is exercising his right to freedom of speech and expression. Telephone-tapping unless it comes within the grounds of restrictions under Article 19(2) would infarct Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution.” So the Apex court in this case, clearly stated that the right to hold a telephonic conversation in private at home or at an office will come under the provisions of right to privacy and a telephone conversation is an important part of a person’s private life. The court also held that telephonic communication in private without interference would come under the purview of right to privacy as mandated in the Constitution. Therefore, unlawful means of phone tapping are invasions in privacy and are vicious and undemocratic in nature. The Supreme Court, in this decision, then went on to lay down various guidelines regarding phone tapping which are as follows: If a telephone has to be tapped, then the home secretary of the Union government or the respective state government can issue an order to this effect. Strong reasons have to be specified in order to issue such a directive. Such an order shall be in force only for two months unless there is another order, which will give the home secretary the right to extend it by another six months only. The Court, however, does not give the home secretary the absolute power and states that such an order shall be subjected to review by the Cabinet, law and telecommunication secretary who would have to review the same in 2 months’ time of the date the order has been passed. Additionally, the court held that records relating to phone tapping should be used and destroyed within two months. After the PUCL case, the Union Government brought about an amendment in accordance with the judgement, in the Indian Telegraph Rules, 1951 and inserted the Rule 491-A to regulate the tapping of phones. But this amendment also did not improve the situation. In the case of Rayala M. Bhuvaneswari vs Nagaphanender Rayala,[3] The High Court of Andhra Pradesh held that the act of phone tapping by the husband of the conversation of his wife with others was illegal as it infringed the right of privacy of the wife. The consent of the parties to the conversation was not there. The court observed, “One of the facts relate to the purity of the relation between the husband and wife. Without the knowledge of the wife, the husband was recording her conversation on telephone which she was making with her friends and parents in India. If the husband is of such a nature and has no faith in the wife even about her conversations to her parents, then the institution of marriage itself becomes redundant. There should be some trust between husband and wife and in any case, in my view, the right of privacy of the wife is infringed by her husband by recording her conversation on the telephone to others and if such a right is violated, which is fundamental, can such husband, who has resorted to illegal means, which are not only unconstitutional but also immoral, later on, rely on the evidence gathered by him by such means.” In the case of K.L.D Nagasree vs. Government of India,[4] while referring to the observation of the Court in P.U.C.L. case, it was held that, “A bare reading of the above provision shows that for the purpose of making an order for interception of messages in exercise of powers under Sub-Section (1) or Sub-Section (2) of Section 5 of the Telegraph Act, 1885, the occurrence of any pubic emergency or the existence of a public safety interest is the sine qua non.” In Justice Puttaswamy v Union of India,[5] The Supreme Court of India declared Privacy a fundamental right, thereby setting up the foundation for strengthening the case for individual privacy protections. The right to privacy largely encompasses physical privacy, informational privacy and decisional autonomy. However, the court further said that privacy wouldn’t be an absolute right and could therefore be limited by a procedure established by law. The interplay of technological progressions and the right to privacy in the digital era needs to be closely inspected. The test to determine the validity of any such constraint is that it is reasonably based on the fair procedure and free from arbitrariness or picky targeting or profiling. The court observed, “It can also be based on compelling state interest. This is where a cautionary note is in order. Courts exercising writ jurisdiction should be cautious about the nature of the relief they grant based on wide and open-ended claims of breach of privacy. While the legitimate expectation of privacy may vary from the intimate zone to the private zone and from the private to the public arenas, it is important to underscore that privacy is not lost or surrendered merely because the individual is in a public place. Privacy attaches to the person since it is an essential facet of the dignity of the human being.” Thus it means, even if calls are recorded/taped thorough just, fair and reasonable procedure established by law (that is equivalent to the due procedure established by law), it cannot be used in a public hearing as the individual’s right to privacy in this regard is considered as absolute, although a fair, reasonable and just procedure would allow for such breach. Intercepting the phone of an individual without any intimation infringes right to privacy of an individual. According to the Major Law Lexicon, 4th Edition, the term ‘interception’ means ‘the act of listening in and recording communications, intended for another party for the purpose of obtaining intelligence; the act of engaging an enemy force on its way towards its objective.’ But it is important to remember that the power to intercept a phone in special circumstances is conferred to the government under section 5(2) of Telegraph Act. This provision gives power to the government to intercept a phone in the interest of justice or in a case of an emergency. This power however is not absolute. Nobody can intercept a telephone of a person without taking permission and following proper protocols. The interception of someone’s phone can be only to a certain extent and by showing reasonable grounds in doing so. The biggest problem in India has been the weaponization of phone tapping. While the law is clear on the evidentiary value and admissibility of phone tapped recordings in court, it offers no safeguards or protections to people from illegal and arbitrary phone tapping. In what has become a common trend in India, journalists, activists and politicians often find their phone conversations recorded and put out in the public domain. This usually is a politically motivated attempt by state actors to either spy on or discredit people. As long as the law fails to protect the citizenry from such snooping, privacy shall be a far-fetched dream. It is now for the Government to step in and put in place necessary safeguards. And if it fails, the Supreme Court should rise to the occasion. [Afreen Alam is a law student, researcher and writer from Delhi. She is currently pursuing her B.A. LL.B. (Hons) from Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi. She tweets at @Afreenalam_] [1] R M Malkani vs. State of Maharashtra AIR1973SC 157. [2] People’s Union of Civil Liberties (PUCL) Vs. Union of India (UOI) and Ors. AIR1997SC 568. [3] Rayala M. Bhuvaneswari vs Nagaphanender Rayala AIR 2008 AP 98. [4] L.D Nagasree vs. Government of India AIR 2007 AP 102. [5] Justice Puttaswamy v Union of India (2017) 10 SCC 1. Next Storylast_img read more